Suborbital rockets in safety & defense applications
PDF

Keywords

rocket
sounding rocket
suborbital launch vehicles
safety & defense systems validation

How to Cite

Noga, T. (2021). Suborbital rockets in safety & defense applications. Safety & Defense, 7(2), 65-79. https://doi.org/10.37105/sd.146

Abstract

This paper presents benefits from using suborbital rockets in safety & defense applications. The paper describes suborbital rockets and their contribution to modern science, research and technology development. A historical view of suborbital rockets and their applications in safety & defense roles is discussed. Chosen research & development activities, military exercises and air defense systems’ tests performed using suborbital rockets in various countries are listed and described based on a literature review of publicly available sources. The paper presents capabilities of Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation in the field of suborbital rockets. A development of ILR-33 AMBER 2K rocket reaching flight speeds over Mach 4 and optimized to reach 100 km altitude is described with comment regarding its applicability in safety & defense applications supported by flight simulations.

https://doi.org/10.37105/sd.146
PDF

References

Blue Origin. (2019, September). New Shepard Payload User's Guide revision F. Blue Origin. NSPM-MA0002.

Christie, S., Zeiger, B., Pfaff, R., & Garcia, M. (2016). Introduction to the Special Issue on Sounding Rockets and Instrumentation. Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation, 5(1), https://doi.org/10.1142/S2251171716020013

defence24. (2019, September 16). NATO testuje radary pasywne w Polsce (NATO is testing passive radars in Poland). Defence24. https://www.defence24.pl/wojska-radiotechniczne-sprawdzaja-nowe-rozwiazania-technologiczne

Demets, R. (2011). BIOLOGY ON SOUNDING ROCKETS: HISTORY, REQUIREMENTS, RESULTS AND SCIENTIFIC INTERPRETATION. 20th ESA Symposium on european rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related research. Hyeré, France. https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ESASP.700...63D/abstract

Egry, I. (2009). Containerless Processing of Liquid Metals in Microgravity. 19th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research. Bad Reichenhall, Germany. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/CONTAINERLESS-PROCESSING-OF-LIQUID-METALS-IN-Egry/b54776a0723cd4835b6c3645a9c2ea7805fbaf39

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. (2021). Title 14 Aeronautics and Space CFR 401.7. https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=539e9fb58a1472264819f971bb46eebc&mc=true&node=pt14.4.401&rgn=div5

EUCOM History Office. (2012, January 23). January 25, 1995 -- The Norwegian Rocket Incident. United States European Command https://web.archive.org/web/20160105033448/http://www.eucom.mil/media-library/article/23042/this-week-in-eucom-history-january-23-29-1995

Faenza, Martina; Boiron, Adrien; Haemmerli, Bastien; Verberne, Onno. (2019). The Nammo Nucleus Launch - a Showcase for Hybrid Sounding Rockets. 24th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research. Essen, Germany.

Federal Aviation Administration. (2011). 2011 U.S. Commercial Space Transportation Development and Concepts: Vehicles, Technologies, and Spaceports. Federal Aviation Administration. https://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ast/media/2011%20DevCon%20Report.pdf

Francisco, G., Nuermberger, M., Torres, R., & Crespo, J. (2018). ARION 1 Reusable Sounding Rocket: New Microgravity Platform in Europe. 69th International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Bremen, Germany. IAC-18,A2,IP,10,x48327

Goddard, R. (1919). A method of reaching Extreme Altitudes. In Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 71(2) (Vol. 71). City of Washington: Smithsonian Institution.

Gut, Z. (2020). Using Electrical Capacitance Tomography System for Determination of Fluids in Rocket and Satellite Tanks. Transactions on Aerospace Research, 1(258), 18-33, https://doi.org/10.2478/tar-2020-0002

Macdonald, K. (2016, February 3). Hebrides rocket launch: The space milestone we almost missed. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-highlands-islands-35482244

Marciniak, B., Okninski, A., Bartkowiak, B., Pakosz, M., Sobczak, K., Florczuk, W., . . . Wolanski, P. (2018). Development of the ILR-33 “Amber” sounding rocket for microgravity experimentation. Aerospace Science and Technology, 73, 19-31, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ast.2017.11.034

Martin, J., & Law, G. (2002). Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles and Applicable Markets. The Aerospace Corporation. https://www.space.commerce.gov/wp-content/uploads/2002-10-suborbital-LowRes.pdf

Masunaga, S. & Mendez, A. (2021, July 20). Jeff Bezos launches new era of space travel with Blue Origin ride. Los Angeles Times. https://www.latimes.com/business/story/2021-07-20/jeff-bezos-launches-blue-origin-new-shepard

NASA. (2015). NASA Sounding Rockets User Handbook. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Flight Facility. https://sites.wff.nasa.gov/code810/files/SRHB.pdf

NASA. (2019). NASA Sounding Rockets Annual Report 2019. Wallops Island: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Flight Facility. https://sites.wff.nasa.gov/code810/files/Annual%20Report%202019_web.pdf

NBC News. (2011, January 25). Kratos Supports Critical Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Test -- Atlantic Trident 2011. NBC News https://www.nbcnews.com/id/wbna41249257

Noga, T (2021). Hydrogen Peroxide RCS on a Sounding Rocket – a Milestone Towards Launch Vehicles and Satellite Platforms’ Applications, Space Propulsion 2020, Estoril, Portugal. SP2020_#00373

Noga, T., & Puri, R. (2020). Microgravity, atmosphere sounding, astronomy, technology validation – an overview of suborbital rockets’ missions and payloads. Int. J. Space Science and Engineering, 6(2), 179-208, https://www.doi.org/10.1504/IJSPACESE.2020.110365

Nowakowski, P., Okninski, A., Pakosz, M., Cieslinski, D., Bartowkiak, B., & Wolanski, P. (2017b). Development of small solid rocket boosters for the ILR-33 sounding rocket. Acta Astronautica 138, 374-383, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2017.06.007

Nowakowski, P., Pakosz, M., Okninski, A., Kaniewski, D., Marciniak, B., Surmacz, P., . . . Wolanski, P. (2017a). Design of a solid rocket motor for controlled deorbitation. 53rd AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. Atlanta, USA, https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2017-5083

Okninski, A. (2018). On use of hybrid rocket propulsion for suborbital vehicles. Acta Astronautica 145, 1-10, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2018.01.027

Okninski, A., Kindracki, J., & Wolanski, P. (2018). Multidisciplinary optimisation of bipropellant rocket engines using H2O2 as oxidiser. Aerospace Science and Technology, 82-83, 284-293, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ast.2018.08.036

Okninski, A., Pakosz, M., Bartkowiak, B., Nowakowski, P., Noga, T., Matyszewski, J., Wolanski, P. (2019). The ILR-33 AMBER 2K ROCKET – dedicated access to suborbital experimentation. 70th International Astronautical Congress (IAC). Washington, IAC-19,D2,6,8,x50868

Pakosz, Michał; Majewska, Ewa; Matysek, Krzysztof; Noga, Tomasz; Nowakowski, Paweł; Ptasinski, Grzegorz. (2020). Design Modifications for Performance Enhancement of a Suborbital Rocket ILR-33 AMBER 2K. 71st International Astronautical Congress (IAC). The CyberSpace Edition. IAC-20,D2,6,7,x60735

Pakosz, Michał; Noga, Tomasz; Kaniewski, Damian; Okninski, Adam; Bartkowiak, Bartosz. (2019). ILR-33 AMBER Rocket - Quick, Low Cost and Dedicated Access to Suborbital Flights for Small Experiments. 24th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research. Essen, Germany. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/346243972_ILR-33_AMBER_ROCKET_-QUICK_LOW_COST_AND_DEDICATED_ACCESS_TO_SUBORBITAL_FLIGHTS_FOR_SMALL_EXPERIMENTS

Reim, G. (2020, April 1). US Air Force looks at using small sounding rocket for hypersonic testing. FlightGlobal. https://www.flightglobal.com/fixed-wing/us-air-force-looks-at-using-small-sounding-rocket-for-hypersonic-testing/137660.article

Rummler, T. (2018, October 25). Sandia delivers first DOE sounding rocket program since 1990s. Sandia National Laboratories. https://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/labnews/articles/2018/26-10/hot_shot.html

Seibert, G. (2006). The History of Sounding Rockets and Their Contribution to European Space Research. ESA Publications Division. https://www.esa.int/esapub/hsr/HSR_38.pdf

Strout, N. (2021, March 4). Space Force launches experimental research payload. C4ISRNET. https://www.c4isrnet.com/battlefield-tech/space/2021/03/04/space-force-launches-experimental-research-payload/

Surmacz, P., Kostecki, M., Gut, Z., & Olszyna, A. (2019). Aluminum Oxide–Supported Manganese Oxide Catalyst for a 98% Hydrogen Peroxide Thruster. Journal of Propulsion and Power, 35(1), 1-10, https://doi.org/10.2514/1.B37359

Surmacz, Paweł; Sobczak, Kamil; Rarata, Grzegorz; Bartkowiak, Bartosz; Okninski, Adam; Kublik, Dominik; Wolanski, Piotr; Valencia, Ferran. (2017). Early Studies and Fire Tests of a Green Liquid Apogee Engine Based on Decomposition of 98% Hydrogen Peroxide. 68th International Astronautical Congress. Adelaide, Australia, https//doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.28847.43686

Tauri Group. (2012). Suborbital Reusable Vehicles: A 10-Year Forecast of Market Demand. FAA and Space Florida. https://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ast/media/Suborbital_Reusable_Vehicles_Report_Full.pdf

Trevithick, J. (2021, April 26). Warnings Posted For A Peculiar French Ballistic Missile Test In The Atlantic. THE WARZONE. https://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/40334/warnings-posted-for-a-peculiar-french-ballistic-missile-test-in-the-atlantic

Wilde, P. D. (2018). Range safety requirements and methods for sounding rocket launches. The Journal of Space Safety Engineering 5(1), 5, 14-21, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsse.2018.01.002

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.