Defense and Deterrence as the Foundation of the A2/AD System in Smart City Air Defense


Smart City
A2/AD systems
air defense

How to Cite

Grobelny, Z., Kopczewski, M., & Świętochowski, N. (2023). Defense and Deterrence as the Foundation of the A2/AD System in Smart City Air Defense. Safety & Defense, 9(1), 14-23.


The extreme concentration of tangible and non-tangible resources in the environment of the Smart City calls for their securing and protection. In the case of threat emergence, the military would have to enter areas where local authorities cannot guarantee the security of Smart City assets. Thus, the question arises whether or not Smart Cities could potentially assist the military forces in performing their tasks better on the battlefield. Some military agencies are currently exploring the possibility of using the military in Smart Cities. For instance, the United States Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is studying whether smart city communications and infrastructure could be of use on the future battlefield. This paper aims to indicate the potential for expansion and integration of the anti-aircraft defense systems to serve the needs of urban defense, thereby allowing the achievement of air superiority and implementing the assumptions of A2/AD systems. In reference to the research objective formulated in such a way, discovering the answers to the following questions was deemed crucial: What is the state of the current Anti-Aircraft Defense (AAD) system of urban centers, in particular Smart Cities? What are the possibilities of expanding and improving this system? How can the SMART CITY system be integrated and serve as an element of strengthening the AAD system? In order to answer the indicated questions, this article was written with the use of qualitative method consisting of text and literature exploratory research and analysis, and comparative analyzes of Smart Cities and Air Defense in contemporary military operations. To achieve the assumed aim, the authors have also conducted the evaluation of Air Defense combat capabilities, as well as the changes that have occurred in the environment of Smart Cities. The authors used thematic analysis methods to interpret patterns and meanings in the data


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