Counting the Uncountable


air defense
combat capabilities
air threats

How to Cite

Michalski, D., & Adam, R. (2020). Counting the Uncountable. Safety & Defense, 6(2), 100-112.


The aim of the research was to create such a calculation model for the air defense efficiency that will enable to determine the degree of implementation of the task by anti-aircraft defense forces in combat conditions. The innovative approach to the efficiency of air defense presented in the article focuses on the methods and algorithms enabling the assessment of the feasibility of the air defense task. In its general form, it is based on the determination of the probable number of air assault assets intended for the implementation of an air task (destruction, incapacitation, disorganization of the cover object) and the possibility of air defense sets (means) to repel an air attack. The research was conducted with the use of qualitative methods – when determining the elements of protection or tactical and technical data. The results of the presented research can be implemented in the command process in air defense.


Baldwin, W.C., and Felder, W.N. (2019). Use of the Belonging Metric to Inform Architectural Decisions in an Air Defense Scenario. Procedia Computer Science, 153, 166–176.

Fatih Hocaoğlu, M. (2019). Weapon Target Assignment Optimization for Land based Multi-Air Defense Systems: A Goal Programming Approach. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 128, 681-689.

FM 3-01-11 (2000). Air defense artillery refence handbook. Army HQ, October 2000.

FM 6-0 (2014). Commander and staff organization and operations. Army HQ, May 2014.

Goztepe K., Dizdaroğlu V., and Sağıroğlu Ş. (2015). New directions in military and security studies: artificial intelligence and military decision making process. International Journal of Information Security Science, 4(2), 75-80. Retrieved from, 12.10.2020.

Halama A., and Radomyski A. (2003). Taktyka wojsk obrony przeciwlotniczej. Warszawa: AON.

Klukowski Z., (1999). Środki napadu powietrznego, Koszalin: Centrum szkolenia obrony przeciwlotniczej.

Kulik, T. (2020). The Selected Aspects of Contemporary Air Threats. Safety & Defense, 6(1), 11-21.

Li, W., Yi, W., Wen, M., and Orlando, D. (2020). Multi-PRF and multi-frame track-before-detect algorithm in multiple PRF radar system. Signal Processing, 174,

Kazakhov, B.D. (2010). Estimating the Efficiency of Combat Employment for Air Defense Troops in Interservice Formations, Voyennaya mysl, 1. 91-98.

Tsyrndorzhiyev, S.R. (2012). On Attempts to further the theory of air defense efficiency. Military Thought, 1(21).

Radomyski, A., Malinowski, P., and Michalski D. (2018). Air safety environment of the state. Wrocław: Grafpol. Retrieved from 12.10.2020.

Snyder, J. (1989). The Ideology Of The Offensive: Military Decision Making and The Disasters of 1914. New York: Cornell University Press.

Şandru, V. (2016). Performances of air defence systems measured with AHP-SWOT analysis. Forum Scientiae Oeconomia, 4(1), 43-55. Retrieved from 12.09.2020

Vasilescu, C. (2011). Effective Strategic Decision Making, Journal of Defense Resources Management, 2(1), 101-106. Retrieved from, 02.10.2020.

Kacer. J., and Májek. V. (2006). Air Defence efficiency according NATO. Cybernetic Letters, 1, 1-9. Retrieved from, 12.09.2020.

Wang, F.B., and Dong, C. H. (2013). Fast Intercept Trajectory Optimization for Multi-stage Air Defense Missile Using Hybrid Algorithm. Procedia Engineering, 67, 447-456.

Wilson, A.J. (1994). Technical challenges and opportunities for future air defence. The RUSI Journal, 139(5), 64-71. https://doi.org10.1080/03071849408445859.

Zdrodowski B., and Zych J. (2003) Założenia funkcjonalno-techniczne symulatora operacyjno-taktycznego działań sił powietrznych. Warszawa: AON.

Zdrodowski, B., et al. (1996). Obrona powietrzna,. Warszawa: AON.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.