This is the first issue of the “Safety & Defense” published in 2020. On this occasion, we would like to thank all the authors and reviewers for their contribution to the development of “Safety & Defense.” We also look forward to cooperating with other academics who will broaden our readership and the range of authors, and reviewers.
We are aware that only on account of close cooperation, mutual respect for science, and professional ethics, “Safety & Defense” can be further developed. At this point, I would like to quote Paulo Coelho, who wrote: “There is only one way to learn. It's through action.”
Therefore, with great hopes for the development of science and our journal, I invite you to read this issue. In this newest issue, we present twelve peer-reviewed papers that constitute a kind of review of theoretical and empirical scientific research, which are undoubtedly not only interesting, but also innovative in their approach to safety and security.
The first of the presented considerations focuses on the operational factors and conditions for the development of the air defense system in the Polish Armed Forces. This article contains very interesting assessments formulated in relation to air defense organizations in high-intensity conflicts. On the basis of conclusions drawn from the course of such conflicts, it was pointed out that it is necessary to gradually increase the air defense’s operational capabilities. This should be done by technological modernization, which would include the acquisition of a new generation of anti-aircraft missile systems of various categories from V-Shorad to medium range systems. It was also emphasized that it will be possible to achieve this if a multi-stage plan is financially secured and implemented.
The next paper, which addresses airborne threats, is also related to the issue of developing air defense capabilities. There are no doubts that air attack means that generate such threats have undergone an enormous evolution not only in technological terms but also in regard to the concept of their use in warfare and operations below the threshold of war. In addition, an important issue from the national defense system perspective is a skillful forecast of the further technological development of the air attack means and the changes in the tactics of using them.
The broader context of state defense that goes beyond the specialized issues of air defense and air threats, which dominated previous articles, is the issue of proper the perception of the Integrated Military Information System (IMIS). As military experts emphasize, it is of great importance, because when successfully implemented into the structure of the Ministry of National Defense, it would become a guarantor of creating an effective logistics management model in the Polish Air Force. The primary task is to deploy the system in air bases. Currently, it should be assumed that an integrated information system is the key to ensuring efficient security of undertaken actions and thus it has a significant impact on the final result.
The next paper provides a detailed analysis of the proper organization of air traffic by Polish controllers carried out during the mission in Iraq. The principles of organization and air traffic management conducted by Polish air traffic controllers (ATC) were presented and discussed. In the analysis, the author also referred to other important issues, such as: methods of planning and preparing air operations, the principles of air traffic organization, including the traffic principles over the landing pad. Maintaining proper airspace segmentation, which required the introduction of new solutions for air traffic control and more effective and flexible use of airport infrastructure, were key issues.
Further on, we recommend that our readers follow the considerations that have been presented in subsequent articles. Generally, it can be stated that those papers analyze other areas related to information, demographics, and economic safety and security. Today, we are aware that the vital element of state security is having full information. Also, protection of the obtained information is crucial. It can be achieved by limiting the access to sensitive information and its proper processing, while ensuring the necessary means and mechanisms of physical and ICT security.
When talking about information security, we cannot ignore the issue of threats posed by the Internet. This problem is addressed in next article. The basis of the analysis presented there are the results of empirical research carried out in 2018-2019 on a population of 562 Internet users from three countries: Spain, Poland, and Turkey. There are, as the author convincingly argues, many dangers for users, especially those who knowingly underestimate them. The characterized threats are closely related to further considerations, in which the possibility of using cyberspace for propaganda activities comes to the fore. In this regard, it is interesting to analyze the cases of this type of action in relation to the wave of migrants trying to escape from endangered countries and find shelter in one of the countries in Europe. Some social networks and media portrayed escaping immigrants as potential terrorists.
The next paper discusses the issue of terrorism, in which the socio-psychological perspectives are dominant, namely, the phenomenon described as ‘lone wolves’. In relation to these issues, an attempt was made to confirm the thesis that the motivation force of a lone wolf, i.e., a person using violence due to ideological reasons, is not based on external, but on personality factors.
No less interesting are the considerations regarding the phenomenon of economic migration treated as one of the manifestations of the globalization process. When analyzing these issues, it should be emphasized that both in the past and nowadays migration processes have posed a great challenge from an economic, social, and cultural point of view. In consequence, there is a general reluctance to accept migrants. Another important issue addressed in this article is the impact of economic migration on changes in the population structure, and thus on cultural transformations that may occur in individual countries or regions.
Migration issues are not without impact on the need to integrate various cultural environments. Teaching systems are faced with many challenges in this regard. This applies to Poland as well, because it is becoming an increasingly attractive country for economic migrants and hence it should be properly prepared to accept them. In these new conditions, it seems justified to transform the basic assumptions regarding the role of schools in the state security policy. This is particularly important in relation to promoting public awareness of the possible threats that growing migration may bring forth. The authors of this text are of the opinion that one of the rational ways that will facilitate the integration of immigrant children and ensure their safety is to implement effective educational solutions in schools. A quantitative analysis was carried out, in which foreign students studying in Poland were examined.
At the end of this issue of “Safety & Defense,” we offer readers the opportunity to familiarize themselves with the results of research focused on energy security, which is treated as an integral element of national security. The research results presented oscillate around the factors determining Polish security policy. In this regard, the issue of energy networks, adaptation of the national technological infrastructure to the modern requirements of the raw materials market, as well as the issue of bilateral and multilateral agreements regarding energy security issues were analyzed. These considerations were conducted while analyzing the impact of actions taken by the Russian Federation. There is no doubt that for some time the deteriorating bilateral relations between Poland and Russia have changed the philosophy of the development of the national energy sector. Now, the main assumption of the sector is to obtain natural gas and oil from various sources, to enhance storage capability, which should ensure storing the proper amount of the necessary strategic reserves.
We cordially invite you to read through this current issue.
Editor in Chief