The Political and Military Aspects of Creating Anti-Access/Area-Denial Systems (A2/AD): The Example Of China and Russia


air defense
military operations

How to Cite

Dobija, K. (2021). The Political and Military Aspects of Creating Anti-Access/Area-Denial Systems (A2/AD): The Example Of China and Russia. Safety & Defense, 7(2), 22-39.


Over the last two decades, China and Russia have been developing Anti-Access/Area-Denial (A2/AD) systems mainly based on long-range Air Defense, ballistic and cruise missiles, supported by Electronic Warfare and cyber-attack capabilities. Initially, these systems were used for defense purposes, but over time. it was recognized they could be also applied for imposing military situation in the specific regions and create effective response to NATO countries and their concept of conducting military operations. The main aim of the article is to asses and present the impact of  Chinese and Russian Anti-Access/Area-Denial (A2/AD) systems on changes in global political relations and balance of military power. In the course of this study, the author used numerous analyzes, synthesis, comparisons and case studies methods mainly concentrated on presently operating A2/AD systems. This article undertakes the analysis of the Chinese bases located in the South China Sea and Djibouti, Russian A2/AD systems within Russia's borders with particular emphasis on Kaliningrad Oblast, and A2/AD systems in Crimea and Syria created as part of Russian military operations. This research allowed us to conclude that some of the A2/AD systems serve to defend borders, while the rest are created to influence the geopolitical and military situation or to gain an advantage in the area of military operations. It can be also evaluate that the use of these systems allow dominate future conflicts because they enable to establish a full control zones which are completely closed for opponents forces operations.


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