Safety & Defense

Current Issue

Vol 6 No 2 (2020)
Published December 31, 2020
Vol. 6 No 2 (2020)

Dear Readers,

We are publishing the next issue of the scientific and technical journal “Safety & Defense.” On this occasion, I would also like to emphasize that we continue to make every effort to ensure that our journal gains an increasing number of readers, authors, and reviewers. Our efforts, apart from pro-quality activities, have recently focused on extending the journal presence in international journal databases. I am pleased to inform that our endeavors have brought tangible results because this year we have been included in one of the most important open source journal database, namely the Directory of Open Access Journals – DOAJ. I would like to point out that these small successes were achieved despite the difficult pandemic situation caused by the Covid-19 virus. We hope that this difficult situation will mobilize us to work even harder, which will facilitate the acceleration of the development of “Safety & Defense” in 2021.

We will do our best to ensure that the journal becomes more and more recognizable among academics in the country and abroad. In this regard, we realize that the basis for gaining universal recognition in the world of science are constructive conclusions formulated by the authors of articles published in “Safety & Defense.” Based on the postulates and opinions formulated by the authors of the papers published in the current issue, it can be noticed that in many cases our thinking about safety requires a significant reevaluation and sometimes even rejection of already established patterns of operation and stereotypical solutions, which have often become obsolete in consequence of the changes that occurred in the security environment.

Therefore, we hope that “Safety & Defense” will become an important and valued discussion forum where the most important issues of national and international security are considered and discussed.

In the current issue of “Safety & Defense,” we present twelve peer-reviewed articles presenting theoretical and empirical scientific considerations that focus on various areas of security. Despite the noticeable diversity of the subject matter, it is possible to identify several trends that have dominated these scientific analyzes. I am thinking especially about the problems related to cybersecurity.

Two articles – “Asian Cyber ​​Security Standards” and “Cybersecurity – One of the Greatest Challenges for Civil Aviation in the 21st Century” correspond to this trend. The first one is in length presents theoretical scientific considerations referring to the issue of cybersecurity threats, the basis of which are domestic security standards introduced by China. Stemming from the analysis is the conclusion that in the last few years alone the Chinese government has implemented around 300 new national cybersecurity standards. These standards cover a variety of information and communication technology (ICT) services as well as products including software, routers, switches and firewalls. Taking into consideration the author’s conclusions, it can be noted that such national standardization may pose a serious threat, especially to Western companies that are trying to develop their operations in China. The second article focuses on cybersecurity challenges in air transport. They relate to cybercrime issues occurring in ground handling, aircraft design and production, flight continuity, maintenance, and operation of air carriers. This is due to the fact that the efficient functioning of these areas is largely based on information technologies, including computers, telephones, and the Internet, for which we can diagnose a wide range of threats – from viruses and theft of personal data, to the takeover of the aircraft by cybercriminals. In order to increase the effectiveness of counteracting such threats, aviation organizations employ specific procedures that broaden the scope of currently existing countermeasures.

The subject of safety and security in air transport is correlated with scientific considerations relating to the identification of air terrorism threats and the assessment of the effects of their occurrence on the functioning of air transport as a global transport sector. Another article deals with the issue of protecting air transport against acts of unlawful interference. In this regard, the authors postulate that aviation security covers the issues of flight safety and aviation protection against acts of unlawful interference. This is particularly important with regard to the security of aircraft and the security of civil airports. The authors of the paper try to answer the following question and research problem: in what direction should the current solutions in the field of air transport safety be improved in order to effectively prevent acts of unlawful interference in the future?

Next paper refers to the subject of protection. It focuses on the protection of individuals in the light of the 2016/679EU Regulation. The emphasis here is placed on the principles of personal data processing and the free flow of this kind of data.

NASA space laser communication system is the subject of the next paper. The topic has been analyzed through the prism of improving the safety of air operations. The authors suggest that two-way space communication is an essential condition for maintaining contact with space missions. This applies to both manned and unmanned ships. Due to constant progress of space technologies, such issues are subject to constant development. With this perspective in mind, the attention was paid to the development of optical space communication, which will ensure fast data transfer, increase throughput, and ensure resistance to typical cyber threats, including jamming, spoofing, and meaconing. Based on the analyzes carried out in the paper, it can be concluded that the implementation of laser optical communication will contribute to increasing the level of safety of air and space operations and will enable a wider exploration of outer space. High expectations are related to the implemented project of the LCRD laser communication transmitter, which is currently being tested by NASA.

Another publication discusses Poland's accession to the NATO as a means for strengthening security in the international arena. The presented research focuses on various kinds of determinants, i.e., technological, organizational, political, and ideological.

The considerations related to the security of Poland are presented in the next article, the content of which relates to the use of unmanned aerial systems in relation to crisis management after 2007. The paper outlines the conceptual framework and organization of crisis management in Poland and analyzes the capabilities of various categories of unmanned aerial systems regarding specific crisis management requirements. Additionally, the current use of unmanned aerial vehicles for crisis management was assessed as well as the prospects of using unmanned aerial systems in crisis management in Poland.

The subject of subsequent articles relates directly to military security. The first one deals with the complexities of the art of war, in particular the role and significance of irregular activities as a form of effective military operations. The paper refers also the 2010 NATO Strategic Concept, which places great emphasis on effective principles and forms of conducting operations against insurgents (COIN). The article accentuates that COIN operations can be the most versatile tool used to combat guerrilla groups.

The next article focuses on the contemporary situation and the future of field artillery. The considerations presented in this paper demonstrate the role and importance of artillery on the modern battlefield. Moreover, the article provides the description of the current state of this type of weaponry. A very interesting part the study is an original attempt to define the directions of the development of artillery capabilities. In this matter, attention was turned to increasing the range of fire systems, implementing multi-sensor ammunition for active search for targets, and introducing technologically advanced automated command and fire control vehicles into the army.

In the following paper there are very interesting considerations on hypersonic weapons presented from the point of view of the challenges they create for anti-aircraft fire command and control systems. Based on the conclusions, it can be stated that the highly developed capabilities of hypersonic weapons require a thorough modernization and the acquisition of anti-aircraft defense systems designed to counter these new types of air targets. In addition to the modernization of fire control systems, the fire command and control systems should be simultaneously developed. This is due to the necessity to ensure the efficiency of the decision-making process as well as uninterrupted and effective cooperation with national and allied elements of air reconnaissance and air defense, including the elements of missile defense, which are predestined to combat hypersonic weapons.

The current issue of “Safety & Defense” is concluded by a research paper that focuses on the proposal to calculate the effectiveness of air defense. In this regard, a proprietary model (algorithm) for calculating the air defense effectiveness was proposed. It enables to determine the degree of implementation of the task by the anti-aircraft defense forces in combat conditions. The article presents an innovative approach to the assessment of the effectiveness of air defense, which is based on methods and algorithms (mathematical formulas) that facilitate a reliable assessment of the possibility of performing a task by the air defense system in the case of an enemy air attack.


We hope that you will find the current issue interesting the and it will be a good read.

We would like to wish a great new year to all readers, author, reviewers, and supporters of “Safety and Defense”. May the upcoming 2021 be filled with success and full of new achievements. Happy New Year.

Adam Radomyski

Editor in Chief

Irmina Denysiuk
Irregular Warfare and Modern Defense – Counterinsurgency Operations
Tomasz Gergelewicz
Poland’s Accession to NATO Considering “Partnership for Peace” and the U.S. Perspective
Mateusz Kuczabski
Asian Cyber Security Standards
Małgorzata Żmigrodzka
Cybersecurity – One of the Greatest Challenges for Civil Aviation in the 21st Century
Wojciech Krasiński
Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Crisis Management in Poland After 2007
Radosław Bielawski, Aleksandra Radomska
NASA Space Laser Communications System: Towards Safety of Aerospace Operations
Mirosław Tokarski
Protection of Individuals in the light of EU Regulation 2016/679 on the Protection of Natural Persons with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data and on the Free Movement of such Data
Krzysztof Ogonowski, Jacek Nowak, Jerzy Achimowicz, Rafał Biernacki
Protection of Air Transport Against Acts of Unlawful Interference: What's Next?
Piotr Malinowski
Hypersonic Weapon as a New Challenge for the Anti-aircraft Defense Command and Control System
Daniel Michalski; Radomyski Adam
Counting the Uncountable: Introduction to the New Method of Evaluation of the Efficiency of Air Defense
Adrian Golonka
Directions of Artillery Development on the Example of the US Military and Artillery Use in the Baltic Sea Region
Jacek Pająk
Air Terrorism as a Threat to the Safety of Air Transport
View All Issues